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2019ASLA分析規劃類榮譽獎:大同古長城文化遺產廊道 | 北京林業大學、北京林業大學風景園林規劃設計研究院

景觀中國 2019-10-08 來源:北京林業大學風景園林規劃設計研究院
原創

ASLA專業獎評語:

中國長城是世界上最重要的文化遺產資源之一,但這一古老的寶藏面臨著生態環境惡化、旅游機會減少、周邊社區經濟衰落等問題。基于對歷史和文化遺產的分析,廣泛的公眾參與,規劃策劃了一條長達258公里的大同古長城文化遺產廊道實施方案,為振興工作繪制了藍圖。植根于該地區的景觀和非凡的文化遺產,規劃團隊開始了重大的生態修復工程,建立了以旅游發展為目標的景區,遺產廊道的建設不僅意味著場地的復興,更是長城沿線社區的重生。

——2019年專業獎評委會


China’s Great Wall is one of the world’s most important cultural resources, but this ancient treasure faces the deterioration of the local environment, a decline in tourism opportunities, and impoverished adjacent communities. Based on historical and cultural analysis, widespread public participation, and field plan for a 258 kilometer-long Datong Ancient Great Wall Heritage Corridor creates a blueprint for revitalization. Rooted in the region’s landscape and remarkable cultural heritage, the planning team has begun the process of significant ecological remediation, the establishment of scenic areas to anchor tourism development, and the rebirth not just of place, but of community.

——2019 ASLA Awards jury



項目概況:

長城是世界文化遺產,人類文明寶藏。本規劃沿大同古長城建立了一條長度258公里,涉及面域186平方公里的文化遺產廊道,涉及遺產保護、生態修復、文化旅游、村域經濟等多項目標。

The Great Wall is a world cultural heritage, and a treasure of human civilization. The planning of Datong Ancient Great Wall Cultural Heritage Corridor has constructed a linear heritage corridor of 258km in length and 186km2 in area, which can realize relics protection, ecological remediation, cultural tourism, village revitalization and many other goals.

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圖1 大同古長城的復興

大同古長城主要為明代(AD1368-1644)建造,雖歷經滄桑,依然大部分存留至今。2017年,大同市政府提出沿長城建立一條文化遺產廊道。

The Datong Ancient Great Wall was mainly built in the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644), and despite of all vicissitudes over history, its main parts have managed to remain till today. In 2017, the Datong Municipal Government proposed the conception of building the cultural heritage corridor of the ancient Great Wall.

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圖2 大同古長城歷史概覽

大同自古就在游牧民族和農耕民族的分界線上,長城就是農耕民族構建的一套防御體系。隨著游牧民族威脅的消失,長城也日漸衰敗。

Since ancient times, Datong sit at the boundary of nomadic peoples and agricultural peoples, and the Great Wall served as a defense system built up by agricultural peoples. With the fading of the threats posed by nomadic peoples, the Great Wall has gradually declined day by day as well.

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圖3 挑戰與目標

因為種種原因,大同古長城遺產屢遭蠶食破壞,周邊生態環境惡化、旅游基礎設施發展遲滯、百姓生活貧困。

The Datong Ancient Great Wall heritage has been constantly subjected to erosions and damages, and its surroundings now face deterioration of ecological environment, stagnation of tourism and poverty of residents.

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圖4 規劃進程

一個涵蓋多個相關專業的專家工作組被建立起來,工作組對場地進行了細致的調研和數據收集,并且深入村落和社區廣泛收集意見。

A team of experts covering a number of related specialties was set up. The team conducted detailed investigation and data collection on the site, and went deep into villages and communities to collect opinions.

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圖5 文化遺產的空間分布

通過對于古長城文化遺產的分析發現,高等級的遺產大多分布在距離長城1000m的范圍內,這為確定遺產廊道的空間格局提供了依據。

Through the analysis of the cultural heritage of the Ancient Great Wall, it is found that the high class heritage is mostly distributed within the range of 1000m from the Great Wall, which provides a basis for determining the spatial pattern of the heritage corridor.

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圖6 遺產廊道空間格局

依據長城及其周邊五大類遺址的分布和保存現狀,規劃將古長城遺產保護的空間格局分為四個層級,以實現對于長城遺產的分級保護和發展。

Based on the distribution and conservation status of the Great Wall and the five types of relics nearby, the planning has divided the spatial pattern for ancient Great Wall heritage protection into four levels, so as to realize the graded protection and development of the Great Wall heritage.

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圖7 生態修復

通過科學的分析,一個集約有效的生態修復面域被確定下來。規劃以當地原生植物群落為藍本,在生態修復區構建低維護的人工植被群落,每個群落都考慮為動物提供相應的棲息地。

A region for intensive and effective ecological remediation is determined. The planning takes local native vegetation community as blueprints, constructs artificial vegetation community requiring low-maintenance in area of ecological remediation, and provides habitats for animals in each community.

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圖8 重點發展區域(景區)遴選

通過對長城沿線文化遺產和自然資源的評估和分級,確定了12個優質資源集中的區域作為重點發展區域(景區),作為整個遺產廊道的核心吸引物進行重點發展。

The cultural heritages and natural resources along the Great Wall have been assessed and rated to determine 12 areas with concentrated high-quality resources as scenic areas for key construction as the core attractions of the entire heritage corridor.

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圖9 貫穿全線的慢行基礎設施

一條全長255公里的旅游公路和自行車道將長城沿線串聯起來,外側設置彈性的帶狀綠廊;公路沿線設置12個驛站和若干休憩點,形成貫穿全線的慢行基礎設施體系。

A sightseeing road & bike lane system, 255km in total length, will be built to connect the Great Wall into an organic whole; a flexible belt-like green corridor will be constructed on the exterior; 12 service centers attached to the scenic areas will be set up along the road to create a continuous system of facilities for tourism services.

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圖10 重點發展區域(景區)規劃——得勝堡景區為例

為保證長城遺產不被干擾,景區內的生態修復和基礎設施建設需要非常謹慎。經過科學的分析生態敏感度、遺產分布、現狀基礎設施等要素,一套低干擾的設施體系被建立起來。

To protect the historical features of the Great Wall, the vegetation restoration and tourism facilities in the scenic areas have been carefully considered. Based on a comprehensive analysis on ecological sensitivity, relics distribution, building suitability and other elements, a set of minimum interference schemes is established.

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圖11 景區鳥瞰——得勝堡景區為例

景區內恢復自然地貌,構建獨具地域特色的植被群落,形成秀麗的自然植物景觀。建立游覽步道、游客中心、休閑游憩、餐飲住宿等服務設施,配合導覽、文化科普和自然科普設施,形成景區服務與解說系統。

Through recovery of natural topography, such vegetation community with unique regional features could be created. A system of scenic area services and interpretation will be built, consisting of sightseeing trails, tourist service centers, leisure & recreation, dining & accommodation and other service facilities, supplemented by tour guides, and popularization facilities for culture and natural science.

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圖12 景區內部——得勝堡景區為例

景區的生態環境將得以修復,所有服務設施的材料、顏色、形式都來自長城及其周邊,使其低調的消隱在遺產環境之中。規劃以增強現實技術(AR)再現長城歷史的科普方式,游客在特定地點,可通過手機掃描二維碼,顯示出此處歷史上某些特定場景與遺跡疊加的景象。

The ecological environment of scenic areas is restored, and the layout, materials, colors and forms of all service facilities all come from the Great Wall and its surrounding areas and are blended in a low-key manner into the heritage environment. what’s more, the technique of Augmented Reality was introduced to reproduce the history scenes of the Great Wall.

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圖13 村域產業引導

通過政府財政補貼、科技支持和規模化經營,引導農民種植實現增產增收;鼓勵長城沿線村民能夠通過參與建設、保護、維護和運營的方式,投入到文化遺產廊道全生命周期之中,讓這些軍墾戍邊人的后代,依靠長城而改善了生活。

By means of fiscal subsidies from government, support by scientific research institution, operation of scales and so forth, rural people will be guided on the plantation to increase production yield and their income; villagers will be guided to develop folk tourism and introduce developers for investment and operation, in order to lift the local rural people out of poverty and make them better off.

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圖14 項目進展——生態修復工程

經過一年多的建設,目前,總投資2.14億美元的植被修復工程已經完成過半,近1.5億株苗木被栽植在荒山、溝壑、谷地和平原上,為長城筑起了一道美麗的生態屏障。

After a year of construction, the project of ecological remediation with a total investment of  214 million USD has been basically completed, nearly 150 million trees have been planted on barren mountains, ravines, valleys and plains, creating a beautiful ecological barrier for the Great Wall.

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圖15 項目進展——慢行基礎設施

沿古長城文化遺產廊道的旅游公路局部建成通車,個別景區已經對游客開放,盛開的杏花和充滿魅力的長城吸引了大量游客前來觀光。

The sightseeing road along the Great Wall have been partially put into use, some scenic area have been opened to tourists, the blooming apricot flowers and the charming Great Wall have attracted a large number of visitors.

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圖16 項目總平面

通過激發長城遺產蘊含的能量,有望獲得巨大的衍生效益。本規劃協調了保護與發展、文化與生態、景觀與社會等多個方面,可以預見的是,這一區域將因為長城的保護與可持續發展而復興。

The planning has fully invigorated the derived benefits of cultural heritages, brought a balance to the benefits in a variety of aspects of protection and development, culture and tourism, industry and ecology etc., It’s foreseeable that this particular area will be revitalized as a result of the protection and flexible development of the Great Wall.


規劃設計團隊:

本規劃由北京林業大學園林學院、林學院、水土保持學院的師生和北京林業大學風景園林規劃設計研究院(BLLA)的設計師通力合作完成,他們是(包括但不限于):

 

主持人:李運遠、馮瀟

總設計師:馮瀟

總體規劃:李運遠、張云路

風景園林:趙晶、頓實、白樺琳、王宏達、稅嘉陵、李爽、趙可極、陳思琪、王亞迪、劉昱含、程文宇、黃思成、武亞男

地理信息系統:王佳、張隆裕

生態修復:李國雷、史文輝、姚光剛

風景建筑:段威、周超

文化旅游:王忠君、吳若云

 

本規劃在設計和實施的過程中,得到了大量來自大同市政府、大同市林業局、長城保護協會等機構專家和領導的支持,他們是(包括但不限于):

 

大同市政府:劉振國

大同市林業局:張宏東、武俊勝、宋昌、李輝、王杰、李建剛

山西長城保護協會:陳福仁

 

 

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